At every level of the spine there are small neural foramina through which nerves leave the spinal cord. These nerves go through limbs and other parts of the body. Forminal stenosis is caused by narrowing of this canal. There can be so many reasons behind the narrowing of this canal including bulging or herniated disc, bone spurs, arthritis, ligament thickening, or joint enlargement, causing pressure on nerve roots.

Symptoms of Foraminal Stenosis

These are some of the common symptoms.

  • Pain
  • Muscle weakness
  • Muscle spasms
  • Cramps
  • Numbness
  • Tingling


Epidural injection of the corticosteroids is suggested for severe pain. Surgery is recommended when conservative treatment options fail to deliver health benefits. The surgery removes overgrown tissues like scar, bulging disc, and bone spurs. Open spine surgery is The common route for treatment of foraminal stenosis.

The surgeon makes a large incision, dissecting soft tissue and extensive muscle, removing portion of the spine to access affected compressed nerve root. If the procedure is feared to lead to spinal instability, the surgeon might opt for a procedure called fusion for stabilizing the spine. In fusion, bone grafts are placed using screws and rods. The surgeon permanently fuses the two vertebrae into one solid bone.